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This guide contains information about American and international governments and elections.

About This Page - A Note From the Librarian


This page is intended to provide users with credible and trustworthy information about election fraud and integrity. It links scholarly journal articles, published news and media, credible websites, and print and electronic books. It is intended to connect users to other universities that conduct and publish extensive studies, collect data, and/or publish datasets for researchers to use appropriately in their research.

Sources of information posted in this guide are primarily primary and non-partisan that publish data or directly report information such as timeline information, statistics derived from the Census Bureau, results from original research, biographical information, etc.

See the Election Research tab for more information on researching election-related topics.


The United States Constitution


The U.S. Constitution in full text with annotations. 

Read the text and see images of the constitution in full. See links to discussions of the interpretation of the document and links to other documents in their Founding Documents gallery. 

Since its launch in 2015, this nonpartisan tool has allowed learners of all ages to engage with the text of the Constitution, discover how experts agree and disagree about its history and meaning, and explore arguments on all sides of the constitutional debates at the center of American life. It is published by The National Constitution Center. 


Web Databases and Sites

Election Law and State Policies

The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) provides 50-state research on many election laws and procedural issues dealing with all aspects of elections. Also helpful is their comparison of the individual state processes for completing and certifying elections and state laws and regulations around voting outside the polling place. You can also find the state policies regarding election security. Other helpful areas of this site related to election security can be found on the Election Technology Overview, such as Voting System Standards, Testing, CertificationMaintaining Accurate Voter Registration Rolls, and Post-Election Audits. However, there is a wealth of information made public and easy to find by the NCSL related to elections, election security, and public policy.   

Reports the types of election crimes and how the FBI investigates them. Provides information on money scams that are common around election time, like campaign donation websites. 

Discusses types of public corruption and how the FBI investigates public corruption-related crimes. There is also a Press Release section with the most current news and statements by FBI officials and the director. 

Provides useful statistics and laws surrounding elections and how they work.

Election Integrity and Verification Organizations

This bipartisan commission is tasked with performing several election-related jobs and providing information.

Election Process and Administration

Voter Turnout, Voter Registration, Ballots Cast, and How to Use Statistical Voter Information

State Voter Lists

Voting Rights Monitoring Organizations


Books On Election Manipulation & Suppression

Best Resources For Researching About Election Fraud

Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources

Which type of information do I need?

Not all information sources are created equal for your research projects. Different types of research and writing projects will require different types of sources. Some disciplines will require you to use primarily primary sources of information. Some research or writing assignments will require secondary sources such as a book or literature review. The following are definitions are the different types of information sources.* 

What is a primary source?

Primary sources contain first-hand information, meaning that you read the author’s account on a specific topic or event that s/he participated in. Examples of primary resources include scholarly research articles, books, and diaries. Primary sources, such as research articles, often do not explain terminology and theoretical principles in detail. Thus, readers of primary scholarly research should have a foundational knowledge of the subject area. Use primary resources to obtain a first-hand account of an actual event and identify original research done in a field. For many of your papers, the use of primary resources will be a requirement.

Examples of  primary sources are:

  • Original documents such as local, state, and federal laws in their original form, diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, records, eyewitness accounts, autobiographies
  • Empirical scholarly works such as research articles, clinical reports, case studies, dissertations
  • Creative works such as poetry, music, video, photography

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources describe, summarize, or discuss information or details initially presented in another source, meaning the author, in most cases, did not participate in the event. This type of source is written for a broad audience. It will include definitions of discipline-specific terms, history relating to the topic, significant theories and principles, and summaries of major studies/events as related to the topic. Use secondary sources to overview a topic and/or identify primary resources. Refrain from including such resources in an annotated bibliography for doctoral-level work unless there is a good reason.*

Examples of  secondary sources are:

  • Annotations and interpretations of local, state, and federal laws
  • Publications such as textbooks, magazine articles, book reviews, commentaries, encyclopedias, almanacs

Tertiary Sources

A tertiary source is a distillation and collection of primary and secondary sources. Examples are:

  • This libguide, or any research guide, published by a school, public, or academic library

Why Is This Particularly Important In Election Interference?

The last two U.S. Presidential Elections have been very controversial and have drawn out a lot of emotions from all political sides. Controversy from the 2016 and 2020 Presidential elections has also resulted in much misinformation published intentionally and unintentionally for many reasons. 

It is essential to know if the source of information you are looking at is primary or secondary to give yourself a chance to make the best judgments, arguments, and decisions. Knowing the type of information you are looking at will also help you get a better understanding of the content and whether or not it was based on an opinion or the actual source of information. All of which will help determine for yourself what the truth is on an issue as well. 

*Definitions of primary and secondary sources are from the Research Process Libguide at Northcentral University Library.

Finding State and Federal Laws

What Does the Law Say?

Many secondary sources will claim to say, "the law says..." or "according to Georgia state law...." How can we find out what the law actually says? Below are resources to find out what the law actually says. However, many legal experts, lawmakers, and judges interpret the law in different ways and will publish their opinions. This is one example of why it is important to know the difference between primary and secondary sources. 

One of the first official government websites you should head to is This is the official website of The United States Government. It will take you to a wealth of information about the government. You will also be able to find out how to obtain official state and local information. If you scroll down this box, you will find a short tutorial on how to find Georgia's state laws, which can be applied to other local and state governments as well. 

It should also be noted that the official laws and government information produced will almost always have the '.gov' domain extension. To know who is publishing the information, look at the 'About...' link. The 'About..." will tell you if it is the U.S. government publishing it, or another organization or person. 

Federal Laws

The United States Congress -

  • will allow you to search for legislation and the status of legislation. It often provides helpful links to other government sites when appropriate. You can also search for laws from the current congress and past congresses. 
  • About - " is the official website for U.S. federal legislative information. The site provides access to accurate, timely, and complete legislative information for Members of Congress, legislative agencies, and the public. It is presented by the Library of Congress (LOC) using data from the Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives, the Office of the Secretary of the Senate, the Government Publishing Office, Congressional Budget Office, and the LOC's Congressional Research Service."

The U.S. House of Representatives -

  • The House Floor - Find all the activity that occurs in the House of Representatives. It provides a daily calendar you can search through or by keyword to find more specific legislative activity. You are also able to look at the status of legislation to know if a specific bill has passed, failed, or stalled in the process. 
  • Representatives - A directory of all of the members of the House of Representatives. This page also contains extensive primary source information about the House, its role in government, and many other helpful links. 
The U.S. Senate
  • Legislation & Records - The U.S. Senate -
  • Senators - A directory of all of the senators. This page also contains extensive primary source information about the Senate, its role in government, and many other helpful links. 

United States State and Territory Laws provides a directory that will take you to any state or territory's official government website. From there, you will have access to a lot of official information including contact information, names of the governor and other officials, and links to many of the state government agencies. To find the state laws, each state will have the link located in a different place. However, it is typically very intuitive to find. 

Research Tutorials

To get step-by-step instructions on how to find local and state laws, click on the Election Research page and select, How to Find US and State Law page from the dropdown.